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February 2020                                                    Viewpointe, Page 3

      JICYMI from page 2                                 the centres of Jewish life shifted from western Europe and   Catholic Poles in the mid-17th century, which rivaled the worst
                                                         Germany to Turkey and then to Poland and Russia.  massacres of Jews in the Middle Ages. Periodic persecutions of
      to conceive of Jews as facing an unchanging and unceasing      But where they were needed, Jews were tolerated. Living   Jews in western Europe continued until the late 18th century,
      manifestation of anti-Jewish oppression throughout this period.   as they did at the margins of society, Jews performed economic   when the Enlightenment changed their position, at least in the
      In 1096, however, knights of the First Crusade unleashed a   functions that were vital to trade and commerce. Because   West. It did not necessarily reduce anti-Semitism. Although
      wave of anti-Semitic violence in France and the Holy Roman   premodern Christianity did not permit moneylending for   the major Enlightenment figures championed the light of
      Empire, including massacres in Worms, Trier (both now in   interest and because Jews generally could not own land, Jews   reason in debunking what they regarded as the superstitions
      Germany), and Metz (now in France). Unfounded accusations   played a vital role as moneylenders and traders. Where they   of Christian belief, their thinking did not lead to any greater
      of ritual murder and of host desecration and the blood libel—  were permitted to participate in the larger society, Jews thrived.   acceptance of Jews. Instead of holding Jews responsible for
      allegations of Jews’ sacrifice of Christian children at Passover   During the Middle Ages in Spain, before their expulsion in   the Crucifixion, Enlightenment thinkers blamed them for
      to obtain blood for unleavened bread—appeared in the 12th   1492, Jewish philosophers, physicians, poets, and writers were   the advent of Christianity and for the injustices and cruelty
      century. The most famous example of these accusations, that   among the leaders of a rich cultural and intellectual life shared   committed by followers of monotheistic religions. Some of
      of the murder of William of Norwich, occurred in England,   with Muslims and Christians. In collaboration with Arab   the most prominent, including Denis Diderot and Voltaire,
      but these accusations were revived sporadically in eastern and   scholars and thinkers in the tolerant society of Muslim Spain,   pilloried the Jews as a group alienated from society who
      central Europe throughout the medieval and modern periods.   they were ern and central Europe throughout the medieval   practiced a primitive and superstitious religion.
      In the 1930s the blood libel became part of Nazi propaganda.   and modern periods. In the 1930s the blood instrumental in      Until the French Revolution of 1789, the status of Jews
      Another instrument of 12th-century anti-Semitism, the   transmitting the intellectual heritage of the Classical world to   in Europe remained tenuous. Treated as outsiders, they had
      compulsory yellow badge that identified the wearer as a Jew,   medieval Christendom.                 few civil rights. They were taxed as a community, not as
      was also revived by the Nazis. The practice of segregating      The idea that the Jews were evil persisted during the   individuals. Exclusion from the larger society reinforced
      the Jewish populations of towns and cities into ghettos dates   Protestant Reformation. Although Martin Luther expressed   their religious identity and strengthened their communal
      from the Middle Ages and lasted until the 19th and early 20th   positive feelings about Jews, especially earlier in his life, and   institutions, which served judicial and quasi-governmental
      centuries in much of Europe.                       relied on Jewish scholars for his translation of the Hebrew   functions. In the French Revolution, with its promise of
         As European commerce grew in the late Middle Ages, some   scriptures into German, he became furious with Jews over their   liberty, equality, and fraternity, the rights of citizenship were
      Jews became prominent in trade, banking, and moneylending,   rejection of Jesus. “We are at fault for not slaying them,” he   extended to Jews. Still, respect and rights were conditioned
      and Jews’ economic and cultural successes tended to arouse   wrote. “Rather we allow them to live freely in our midst despite   on the willingness of Jews to abandon their age-old customs
      the envy of the populace. This economic resentment, allied   their murder, cursing, blaspheming, lying and defaming.” Such   and their communal identity. This was the meaning of the
      with traditional religious prejudice, prompted the forced   views were emphasized by the Nazis. They were renounced   slogan “To the Jews as individuals everything, to the Jews as
      expulsion of Jews from several countries and regions,   by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in 1983 and the   a people, nothing.”
      including England (1290), France (14th century), Germany   Evangelical Lutheran Church in America in 1994.     France was the vanguard of the movement that gave
      (1350s), Portugal (1496), Provence (1512), and the Papal   Anti-Semitism In Modern Europe            civic and legal equality to the Jews. Napoleon’s conquest of
      States (1569). Intensifying persecution in Spain culminated in      The end of the Middle Ages brought little change in Jews’   the German states led to emancipation in some of them, but
      1492 in the forced expulsion of that country’s large and long-  position in Europe, and the Catholic Reformation renewed   after his defeat, Jews faced a series of legal setbacks. Full
      established Jewish population. Only Jews who had converted   anti-Jewish legislation and reinforced the system of ghettoized   emancipation of Jews throughout Germany came only with
      to Christianity were allowed to remain, and those suspected   segregation in Roman Catholic countries. Jews remained   the unification of Germany in 1871.
      of continuing to practice Judaism faced persecution in the   subject to occasional massacres, such as those that occurred      Much more to come in the next issue.
      Spanish Inquisition. As a result of these mass expulsions,   during wars between Eastern Orthodox Ukrainians and Roman
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                   April 2019 – April 2020 Officers/Executive Committee                                      Executive Suites Now

         Chairman and President  Barry J. Haberman      District 5 Dan Gabrielle (La Corniche)
         Vice Chair          Steve Retzer                  Esplanada, Caravelle, Palomar, La Corniche,       Available At Boca
         Vice President      Gail Ehrlich                  and El Dorado
         2nd Vice President      Jim Collins            District 6 Marvin Lazarowitz (Villa Stel)            Pointe Community
         Secretary           Steve  King                   Villa Flora, Montego Bay, Villa Stel, and Palladium
         Treasurer           Harvey  Kaplan             District 7 Joyce Britt (Villa Sonrisa)               Association Offices
                                                           The Plum/Cortina, Villa Sonrisa and Pointe 100
         District Directors                             District 8 Len Kagan (Costa del Sol)
         District 1 Alvaro Fernandez Caballero (Encantada)     Costa del Sol and Costa Brava                   Suites are overlooking the beautiful Lake Buttonwood
            Encantada, Valencia and The Palms           District 9 Robin Gliboff (Edgewater)                and the Boardwalk. Located in the thriving shopping plaza
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         District 4 Bob Greenstein (La Paz)             Jim Collins (Caravelle)  Gail Ehrlich (Villa Flora)     Breakroom
            El Viento, La Paz, and Southwinds           Harvey Kaplan (Meridiana) Barry J. Haberman  (Encantada)
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