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Page 2, Viewpointe                                                   March 2020


       Just In Case You Missed It                        policy—taught in the schools, elaborated in “scientific”   became a fringe phenomenon with occasional lethal

                                                         journals and research institutes, and promoted by a huge,   manifestations in hate crimes. But even if they were fewer
       By Bob Kronish                                    highly effective organization for international propaganda.   in number, less widespread, and less tolerated by American
                                                         In 1941 the liquidation of European Jewry became official   society, virulent anti-Semitic acts still occasionally occurred.
       The Grievous History of                           party policy. During World War II an estimated 5.7 million      Moreover,  anti-Semitism  persisted  in  many  other
       Anti-Semitism––Part 2                             Jews were exterminated by mobile killing units; in such   countries. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, whose troops had
          Author’s Note: Michael                         death camps as Auschwitz, Chelmno, Belzec, Majdanek, and   liberated Auschwitz, engaged in a purge of Jews that was
       Bernenbaum is the author of                       Treblinka; by being worked to death; or through starvation.  halted only by his death in 1953. In the Soviet Union,
       the following article, He is the                  Anti-Semitism Since The Holocaust And Outside Europe  opposition to the State of Israel after the Six-Day War (1967)
       author and editor of twenty                          For a period of time after the Nazi defeat in 1945, anti-  and to the attempts of Soviet Jews to emigrate was linked to
       books, scores of scholarly                        Semitism lost favor in Western Europe and the United   historic Russian anti-Semitism. There also were anti-Jewish
       articles, and hundreds of                         States. Even those who were anti-Semitic were hesitant, if   purges in Poland in 1956–57 and 1968.
       journalistic scholarship, He                      not embarrassed, to express it. American Jews became an      Under the leadership of Pope (later Saint) John XXIII
       is also an American scholar, professor, rabbi, writer, and   integrated part of culture and society in the postwar United   and  the  Second Vatican  Council,  the  Roman  Catholic
       filmmaker, who specializes in the study of the Holocaust  States. Barriers to complete Jewish participation in business   Church accepted the legitimacy of Judaism as a continuing
          France was the vanguard of the movement that gave   and politics fell, and Jews found few obstacles in their way
       civic and legal equality to the Jews. Napoleon’s conquest   as they sought to participate in American life. Anti-Semitism   JICYMI on page 3
       of the German states led to emancipation in some of them,
       but after his defeat, Jews faced a series of legal setbacks.
       Full emancipation of Jews throughout Germany came only
       with the unification of Germany in 1871.
          Even in France itself, emancipation did not end anti-
       Semitism but merely transformed it. With the emergence
       of nationalism as the defining factor in European society
       in the 19th century, anti-Semitism acquired a racial rather
       than a religious character as ethnically homogeneous
       peoples decried the existence in their midst of “alien”
       Jewish elements. Pseudoscientific theories asserting that
       the Jews were inferior to the so-called Aryan “race” gave
       anti-Semitism  new  respectability  and  popular  support,
       especially in countries where Jews could be made scapegoats
       for  existing  social  or  political  grievances.  In  this  new
       climate, anti-Semitism became a powerful political tool,
       as politicians were quick to discover. In the 1890s Karl
       Lueger won the mayoralty of Vienna—a city of diverse
       culture and many Jews—with his anti-Semitic campaigns.
       In both Germany and Austria in the late 19th century, anti-
       Semitism became an organized movement with its own
       political parties.
          In France the Dreyfus Affair became a focal point for
       anti-Semitism. In 1894 Alfred Dreyfus, a highly placed
       Jewish army officer, was falsely accused of treason. His
       final vindication (in 1906) was hampered by the French
       military and the bitterly anti-Semitic French press, and the
       wrenching controversy over the case left lasting scars on
       French political life.
          During the first decade of the 20th century, there was a
       period of moderate decline in anti-Semitic tensions—except
       in Russia, where serious pogroms occurred in Kishinyov
       (now Chişinău, Moldova) in 1903 and 1905 and where the
       Russian secret police published a forgery entitled Protocols
       of the Learned Elders of Zion, which, as the supposed
       blueprint for a Jewish plot to achieve world domination,
       furnished propaganda for subsequent generations of anti-
       Semitic agitators.
          The widespread economic and political dislocations
       caused by World War I notably intensified anti-Semitism in
       Europe after the war. In addition, the many Jewish Bolshevik
       leaders in the Russian Revolution of November 1917 gave
       anti-Semites a new focus for their prejudices in the threat
       of “Jewish Bolshevism.” In postwar Germany, anti-Semites
       joined forces with revanchist nationalists in attempting to
       blame the Jews for that country’s defeat. In Eastern Europe,
       anti-Semitism became widespread in Poland, Hungary, and
       Romania in the interwar period.
       Nazi Anti-Semitism And The Holocaust
          The  storm  of  anti-Semitic  violence  loosed  by  Nazi   AFFORDABLE & RELIABLE IN-HOME CARE
       Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler from 1933 to
       1945 not only reached a terrifying intensity in Germany itself
       but also inspired anti-Jewish movements elsewhere. Anti-  Companion Care    Personal Care    Live-In Care    Respite Care
       Semitism was promulgated in France by the Cagoulards
       (French: “Hooded Men”), in Hungary by the Arrow Cross, in     Alzheimer’s & Dementia Care     Surgery Recovery Care
       England by the British Union of Fascists, and in the United
       States by the German-American Bund and the Silver Shirts.
          In  Nazi  Germany,  anti-Semitism  reached  a  racial              Your Local Representative:  Reba Cole, RN
       dimension never before experienced. Christianity had
       sought the conversion of the Jews, and political leaders
       from Spain to England had sought their expulsion because
       Jews were practitioners of Judaism, but the Nazis—who
       regarded Jews not only as members of a subhuman race                     (561)-860-1897
       but as a dangerous cancer that would destroy the German
       people—sought the “final solution to the Jewish question,”
       the murder of all Jews—men, women, and children—and
       their eradication from the human race. In Nazi ideology
       that perceived Jewishness to be biological, the elimination   Call your local representative, or visit us at
       of the Jews was essential to the purification and even the              to schedule your FREE In-Home Consultation
       salvation of the German people.
          A novelty of the Nazi brand of anti-Semitism was that it
       crossed class barriers. The idea of Aryan racial superiority
       appealed both to the masses and to economic elites. In    Whitsyms In-Home Care is licensed to operate in Florida: 30210978, 30211390, 30211293, 30211382, 30211226
       Germany  anti-Semitism  became  official  government
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