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April 2020                                                     Viewpointe, Page 3

      JICYMI from page 2                                 charter granted liberty of conscience to all settlers, expressly   of Newport, Rhode Island, in a letter dated August 17, 1790:
                                                         mentioning “Jews, heathens, and dissenters.” As a result,   “May the children of the stock of Abraham who dwell in the
      was living in Buckroe in Elizabeth City in February 1624.  Charleston, South Carolina has a particularly long history   land continue to merit and enjoy the goodwill of the other
         Legarde was employed by Anthonie Bonall, who was   of Sephardic settlement, which in 1816 numbered over 600,   inhabitants. While everyone shall sit safely under his own
      a French silk maker and vigneron (cultivator of vineyards   then the largest Jewish population of any city in the United   vine and fig-tree and there shall be none to make him afraid.”
      for winemaking), one of the men from Languedoc sent to   States.                                        In 1790, the approximate 2,500 Jews in America faced a
      the colony by John Bonall, keeper of the silkworms of King      Sephardic  Dutch  Jews  were  also  among  the  early   number of legal restrictions in various states that prevented
      James I. In 1628 Legarde leased 100 acres (40 ha) on the   settlers of Newport (where Touro Synagogue, the country’s   non-Christians from holding public office and voting, but
      west side of Harris Creek in Elizabeth City.       oldest surviving synagogue building, stands), Savannah,   Delaware, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Georgia soon
         Josef Mosse and Rebecca Isaake are documented in   Philadelphia and Baltimore. In New York City, Shearith Israel   eliminated these barriers, as did the Bill of Rights in 1791
      Elizabeth City in 1624. John Levy patented 200 acres of land   Congregation is the oldest continuous congregation started   generally.
      on the main branch of Powell’s Creek, Virginia, around 1648,   in 1687 having their first synagogue erected in 1728, and its      Sephardic Jews became active in community affairs in
      Albino Lupo who traded with his brother, Amaso de Tores, in   current building still houses some of the original pieces of   the 1790s, after achieving “political equality in the five states
      London. Two brothers named Silvedo and Manuel Rodriguez   that first.                                in which they were most numerous.” Other barriers did not
      are documented to be in Lancaster County, Virginia, around      In 1740 Parliament passed the Plantation Act to regularize   officially fall for decades in the states of Rhode Island (1842),
      1650. None of the Jews in Virginia were forced to leave under   and encourage immigration; the law specifically permitted   North Carolina (1868), and New Hampshire (1877).
      any conditions. Solomon Franco, a Jewish merchant, arrived   Jews and other nonconformists to be naturalized in their      Despite these restrictions, which were often enforced
      in Boston in 1649; subsequently he was given a stipend from   American colonies. By the time of American Revolution,   unevenly, there were really too few Jews in 17th- and 18th-
      the Puritans there, on condition he leave on the next passage   the Jewish population in America was still small, with only   century America for anti-Jewish incidents to become a
      back to Holland.                                   1,000 to 2,000, in a colonial population of about 2.5 million.  significant social or political phenomenon at the time. The
         In September, in 1654, shortly before the Jewish New   Revolutionary era                          evolution for Jews from toleration to full civil and political
      Year, twenty-three Jews from the Sephardic community in the      By 1776 and the War of Independence, around 2,000   equality that followed the American Revolution helped ensure
      Netherlands, coming from Recife, Brazil, then a Dutch colony,   Jews lived in America, most of them Sephardic Jews who   that Antisemitism would never become as common as in
      arrived in New Amsterdam (New York City). Governor Peter   immigrated from Spain and Portugal. They played a role in   Europe.
      Stuyvesant tried to enhance his Dutch Reformed Church by   the struggle for independence, including fighting the British,   19th Century
      discriminating against other religions, but religious pluralism   with Francis Salvador being the first Jew to die, and playing a      Following traditional religious and cultural teachings
      was already a tradition in the Netherlands and his superiors   role in financing the revolution, with one of the key financiers   about improving the lot of their brethren, Jewish residents
      (a number of them Jews) at the Dutch West India Company   being Haym Solomon.                        in the United States began to organize their communities
      in Amsterdam overruled him. In 1664 the English conquered      The  highest ranking Jewish  officer of  the  Colonial   in the early 19th century. Early examples include a Jewish
      New Amsterdam and renamed it New York.             forces was Colonel Mordecai Sheftall. Others, like David   orphanage set up in Charleston, South Carolina in 1801, and
      Early Jewish Congregations in the 13 British Colonies   Salisbury Franks, despite loyal service in both the Continental   the first Jewish school, Polonies Talmud Torah, established
      in North America.                                  Army and the American diplomatic corps, suffered from   in New York in 1806. In 1843, the first national secular
         Religious tolerance was also established elsewhere in   his association as aide-de-camp for the traitorous general   Jewish organization in the United States, the B’nai B’rith
      the colonies; the colony of South Carolina, for example,   Benedict Arnold.                          was established.
      was originally governed under an elaborate charter drawn      President George Washington remembered the Jewish      Jewish Texans have been a part of Texas History since the
      up in 1669 by the English philosopher John Locke. This   contribution when he wrote to the Sephardic congregation   first European explorers arrived in the 16th century. Spanish
                                                                                                           Texas did not welcome easily identifiable Jews, but they came
                                     Board Of Directors                                                    in any case. Jao de la Porta was with Jean Laffite at Galveston,
                                                                                                           Texas in 1816, and Maurice Henry was in Velasco in the late

                   April 2019 – April 2020 Officers/Executive Committee                                    1820s. Jews fought in the armies of the Texas Revolution of
                                                                                                           1836, some with Fannin at Goliad, others at San Jacinto. Dr.
                                                                                                           Albert Levy became a surgeon to revolutionary Texan forces
         Chairman and President  Barry J. Haberman      District 5 Dan Gabrielle (La Corniche)
         Vice Chair          Steve Retzer                  Esplanada, Caravelle, Palomar, La Corniche,     in 1835, participated in the capture of Béxar, and joined the
         Vice President      Gail Ehrlich                  and El Dorado                                   Texas Navy the next year.
         2nd Vice President      Jim Collins            District 6 Marvin Lazarowitz (Villa Stel)             By 1840, Jews constituted a tiny, but nonetheless stable,
         Secretary           Steve  King                   Villa Flora, Montego Bay, Villa Stel, and Palladium  middle-class minority of about 15,000 out of the 17 million
         Treasurer           Harvey  Kaplan             District 7 Joyce Britt (Villa Sonrisa)             Americans counted by the U.S. Census. Jews intermarried
                                                           The Plum/Cortina, Villa Sonrisa and Pointe 100  rather freely with non-Jews, continuing a trend that had
         District Directors                             District 8 Len Kagan (Costa del Sol)               begun at least a century earlier. However, as immigration
         District 1 Alvaro Fernandez Caballero (Encantada)     Costa del Sol and Costa Brava               increased the Jewish population to 50,000 by 1848, negative
            Encantada, Valencia and The Palms           District 9 Robin Gliboff (Edgewater)               stereotypes of Jews in newspapers, literature, drama, art, and
         District 2 Steve King (Imperial Royale)           Edgewater Pointe Estates and Stratford Court    popular culture grew more commonplace and physical attacks
            Promenade, Imperial Royale, Imperial, Regency                                                  became more frequent.
            and Panaché                                 At Large Directors     At Large Directors
         District 3 Steve Retzer (La Mirada)            Through 2020           Through 2021                   More next month.
            La Mirada and Meridiana                     Carsten Bethge (Valencia)  Howard Davis (La Corniche)
         District 4 Bob Greenstein (La Paz)             Jim Collins (Caravelle)  Gail Ehrlich (Villa Flora)     For copies of this and other articles that have appeared in
            El Viento, La Paz, and Southwinds           Harvey Kaplan (Meridiana) Barry J. Haberman  (Encantada)  this column, go to Send comments
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