Page 2 - Boca ViewPointe - June '20
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Page 2, Viewpointe                                                    June 2020


       Just In Case You Missed It                        from 20% of the Jewish population in 1930 to 60% in 1960.  first Jewish-born person to set foot on American soil was

                                                            The earlier waves of immigration and immigration   Joachim Gans in 1584. Elias Legarde (a.k.a. Legardo) was
       By Bob Kronish                                    restriction were followed by the Holocaust that destroyed   a Sephardic Jew who arrived at James City, Virginia, on the
                                                         most of the European Jewish community by 1945; these   Abigail in 1621. According to Leon Huhner, Legarde was
       Jews  In  Early America––                         also made the United States the home for the largest Jewish   from Languedoc, France, and was hired to go to the Colony
       Part 1                                            population in the world outside of the State of Israel. In 1900   to teach people how to grow grapes for wine. Elias Legarde
          The Jewish population of                       there were 1.5 million American Jews; in 2005 there were   was living in Buckroe in Elizabeth City in February 1624.
       the U.S. is the product of waves                  5.3 million.                                         Legarde was employed by Anthonie Bonall, who was
       of immigration primarily                             On a theological level, American Jews are divided into   a French silk maker and vigneron (cultivator of vineyards
       from Europe; emigration                           a number of Jewish denominations, of which the most   for winemaking), one of the men from Languedoc sent to
       was initially inspired by the                     numerous are Reform Judaism, Conservative Judaism and   the colony by John Bonall, keeper of the silkworms of King
       pull of American social and                       Orthodox Judaism. However, roughly 25% of American   James I. In 1628 Legarde leased 100 acres (40 ha) on the
       entrepreneurial opportunities,                    Jews are unaffiliated with any denomination. Conservative   west side of Harris Creek in Elizabeth City.
       and later was a refuge from the peril of ongoing European   Judaism arose in America and Reform Judaism was founded      Josef Mosse and Rebecca Isaake are documented in
       antisemitism. Few ever returned to Europe, although   in Germany and popularized by American Jews.  Elizabeth City in 1624. John Levy patented 200 acres of land
       committed advocates of Zionism have made aliyah to Israel.     Luis de Carabajal y Cueva, a Spanish conquistador and
          From a population of 1,000–2,000 Jewish residents in   converso first set foot in what is now Texas in 1570. The   JICYMI on page 3
       1790, mostly Dutch Sephardic Jews, Jews from England,
       and British subjects, the American Jewish community grew
       to about 15,000 by 1840, and to about 250,000 by 1880.
       Most of the mid-19th century Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants
       to the U.S. came from German-speaking states, among the
       general German migration to the U.S. They initially spoke
       German, and settled across the nation, assimilating with their
       new countrymen; the Jews among them commonly engaged
       in trade, manufacturing, and operated dry goods (clothing)
       stores in many cities.
          Between 1880 and the start of World War I in 1914, about
       2,000,000 Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews immigrated
       from Eastern Europe, where repeated pogroms made life
       untenable. They came from Russia, the Pale of Settlement
       (modern Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova),
       and the Russian-controlled portions of Poland. The latter
       group clustered in New York City, created the garment
       industry there, which supplied the dry goods stores across
       the country, and were heavily engaged in the trade unions.
          They immigrated among other, non-Jewish, eastern
       and southern European immigrants, which was unlike the
       historically  predominant American  demographic  from
       northern and western Europe; Records indicate between
       1880 and 1920 that these new immigrants rose from less than
       five percent of all European immigrants to nearly 50%. This
       feared change caused renewed nativist sentiment, the birth
       of the Immigration Restriction League, and congressional
       studies by the Dillingham Commission from 1907 to 1911.
          The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 established
       immigration restrictions specifically on these groups, and
       the Immigration Act of 1924 further tightened and codified
       these limits. With the ensuing Great Depression, and despite
       worsening conditions for Jews in Europe with the rise of
       Nazi Germany, these quotas remained in place with minor
       alterations until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.
          Jews quickly created support networks consisting of many
       small synagogues and Ashkenazi Jewish Landsmannschaften
       (German for “Territorial Associations”) for Jews from the
       same town or village.
          Leaders of the time urged assimilation and integration into
       the wider American culture, and Jews quickly became part of
       American life. During World War II, 500,000 American Jews,
       about half of all Jewish males between 18 and 50, enlisted
       for service, and after the war, Jewish families joined the new
       trend of suburbanization, as they became wealthier and more
       mobile. The Jewish community expanded to other major
       cities, particularly around Los Angeles and Miami. Their
       young people attended secular high schools and colleges and
       met non-Jews, so that intermarriage rates soared to nearly
       50%. Synagogue membership, however, grew considerably,   AFFORDABLE & RELIABLE IN-HOME CARE

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